Home textile knowledge: common concepts and classifications of textiles

Home textile knowledge: common concepts and classifications of textiles

Common Concepts

1. Warp direction, warp yarn, warp yarn density - the length direction of the fabric; this direction yarn is called the warp yarn; the number of yarns arranged within 1 inch is the warp density (warp yarn density);

2. Weft direction, weft yarn, and weft yarn density - the width direction of the fabric; the yarn in this direction is called the weft yarn, and the number of yarns arranged within 1 inch is the weft density (weft yarn density);

3. Density - used to indicate the number of yarns per unit length of the woven fabric, generally the number of yarns within 1 inch or 10 cm. my country's national standard stipulates that the number of yarns within 10 cm is used to represent the density, but Textile enterprises are still used to expressing density by the number of yarns within an inch. As commonly seen, "45×45/108×58" means that the warp and weft yarns are 45, respectively, and the warp and weft densities are 108 and 58.

4. Width - The effective width of the fabric is generally expressed in inches or centimeters. Commonly used are 36 inches, 44 inches, 56-60 inches, etc., which are called narrow width, medium width and wide width respectively, higher than 60 inches. The inch fabric is extra wide, which is generally called wide cloth. Today, the width of extra wide fabric in my country can reach 360 cm. The width is generally marked after the density, such as: if the fabric mentioned in 3 is added with the width, it will be expressed as: "45×45/108×58/60"", that is, the width is 60 inches.

5. gram weight - the gram weight of the fabric is generally the number of grams of the square meter of the fabric weight. The gram weight of denim fabrics is generally expressed in "ounces (OZ)", that is, the number of ounces per square yard of fabric weight, such as 7 ounces, 12 ounces of denim, etc.;

6. Yarn-dyed weaving - called "first-dyed fabric" in Japan, refers to the process of first dyeing yarn or filament, and then using dyed yarn for weaving. Weaving factories are generally called dyeing and weaving factories, such as denim, and most shirting fabrics are yarn-dyed.

Classification of Textiles

1. According to different processing methods

(1) Woven fabric: a fabric formed by interweaving yarns of two systems, namely horizontal and vertical, arranged perpendicular to each other on a loom according to certain rules. There are denim, brocade, pansi, hemp and so on. : There are many ways to classify woven fabrics.
  • According to the types of fibers that make up woven fabrics, it is divided into pure woven fabrics, blended fabrics and interwoven fabrics.

    Pure textile fabric - refers to the fabric woven with the same fiber pure yarn for warp and weft. The performance of this fabric mainly reflects the characteristics of the fiber. For example, the warp and weft yarns of pure cotton fabrics are cotton yarns (threads) such as pure cotton khaki 21×21/108×58, and the warp and weft yarns of viscose fabrics are viscose fiber yarns.

    Blended fabrics - refers to fabrics woven from two or more different varieties of fiber blended yarns, such as cotton and linen blends, polyester-cotton blends, wool polyester, etc., their biggest feature is that the fibers are woven during the spinning process. Mixed together (usually the fibers are mixed in the "opening and cleaning process" before spinning).

    Interwoven fabric - refers to fabrics woven with yarns or filaments of different fibers in the warp and weft directions, such as nylon filaments in the warp direction, nylon-viscose interwoven fabrics with viscose in the weft direction fabrics, etc.
  • According to the fiber length and fineness of woven fabrics, it is divided into cotton fabrics, medium-length fabrics, wool fabrics and filament fabrics.

    Cotton-type fabric - the length of cotton fiber is about 30 mm, and the yarn composed of fibers in this length is cotton-type yarn (in order to blend with cotton fiber, chemical fiber should be cut into this length-cotton-type chemical fiber), use this The fabric composed of these yarns is a cotton-type fabric. Wool-type fabric - the length of wool is about 75 mm (the difference between different varieties is relatively large), and the yarn composed of fibers in this length is wool-type yarn (in order to be blended with wool fibers, chemical fibers should be cut into this length - wool type chemical fiber), the fabric composed of this yarn is wool type fabric. Medium-length fabrics - fibers between cotton and wool lengths are called medium-long fibers, and the yarns formed are called medium-long fiber yarns, and the fabrics made of this yarn are medium-length fabrics.

    Filament-type fabrics - fabrics woven from filaments, such as rayon fabrics, polyester silk fabrics.
  • According to the organizational structure of the woven fabric, it is divided into plain weave, twill weave, satin weave and other organizations. The concept of fabric organization has been mentioned before, so I won't repeat it here.
  • According to the use of woven fabrics, it is divided into clothing, home textiles, industrial fabrics, etc.
(2) Knitted fabrics: fabrics formed by knitting yarns into circles, which are divided into weft knitting and warp knitting.
  • Weft knitted fabrics are made by feeding the weft threads into the working needles of the knitting machine from the weft direction, so that the yarns are bent into circles in order and threaded into each other.
  • Warp knitted fabrics are made by using one or several groups of parallel yarns, which are fed into all the working needles of the knitting machine in the warp direction at the same time.

    Knitted fabrics are mainly divided into two categories: weft knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics. Weft knitted fabrics are used for sweaters and socks, warp knitted fabrics are often used as underwear fabrics, and hand knitting is also a weft knitting method.

    In weft knitting, the yarn is reciprocating laterally (or circularly) from one side of the machine to the other, and a new knitting loop can be formed with the movement of the knitting needle. The yarns of weft knitted fabrics run in the transverse direction, and the fabric is formed by knitting needles in the course direction to knit a course and a course of upper and lower courses connected to each other. All the loops of a course are woven from one yarn. Weft knitted fabrics can be done on flat or circular knitting machines.

    Warp knitting is the longitudinal movement of a group of warp yarns in the warp direction to form new knitting loops with the movement of the knitting needles. Warp knitted fabrics and the warp knitting machines that produce them are fundamentally different from weft knitted fabrics and the weft knitting machines that produce weft knitted fabrics. The yarn is warp knitted in warp knitting, just like the warp yarn of woven fabric, the yarn is supplied by the warp beam, and the warp beam is wound with a large number of parallel yarns, which is similar to the warp beam in weaving. The direction of the yarn in warp knitted fabric is warp direction. A vertical loop is formed in one course, then moved diagonally to another wale to form another loop in the next course. The yarns travel lengthwise in the fabric in a zigzag pattern from side to side, and each loop in a course is woven with a different yarn. Among the knitted fabrics, weft knitted fabrics account for the largest proportion.

    Weft knitted fabrics mainly include basic weft knitted fabrics (plain knitted fabrics are also known as weft flat, rib fabrics, double reverse knitted fabrics), special weft knitted fabrics (double rib knitted fabrics, double knitted fabrics, plush, knitted loops) , knitted velvet, etc.) Warp knitted fabrics are mainly divided into warp velvet, warp velvet and warp velvet.
(3) Non-woven fabric: It is formed by bonding or stitching loose fibers. At present, two methods of bonding and puncturing are mainly used. Using this processing method can greatly simplify the process, reduce costs, improve labor productivity, and has broad development prospects.

2. Classification according to the yarn raw materials that make up the fabric

  • Pure textile fabrics: The raw materials that make up the fabrics all use the same fiber, including cotton fabrics, wool fabrics, silk fabrics, polyester fabrics, etc.
  • Blended fabrics: The raw materials of fabrics are made of two or more different types of fibers, which are made of blended yarns, including polyester-viscose, polyester-nitrile, polyester-cotton and other blended fabrics.
  • Blended fabric: The raw material of the fabric is made of single yarns of two fibers, which are combined into strands. There are low-stretch polyester filaments and medium-length blends, and polyester staple fibers and low-stretch polyester filaments. Mixed and merged into strands, etc.
  • Interwoven fabric: The raw materials for the two direction systems of the fabric are different fiber yarns, such as antique satin interwoven with silk and rayon, and nylon and rayon interwoven with nylon.

3. According to whether the fabric material is dyed or not

  • White fabrics: unbleached and dyed raw materials are processed into fabrics, which are also called raw fabrics in silk weaving.
  • Dyed fabric: The dyed raw material or fancy thread is processed into fabric. Silk weaving is also called cooked fabric.

4. Novel fabric classification

  • Adhesive cloth: It is made by bonding two pieces of cloth that are back to each other. Bonded fabrics Organic fabrics, knitted fabrics, non-woven fabrics, vinyl plastic films, etc., also in various combinations.
  • Flocking fabric: The fabric is covered with short and dense fiber fluff, with a velvet style, which can be used as clothing and decoration materials.
  • Foam Laminated Fabric: It is a woven or knitted fabric that adheres foam plastic to the base fabric, and is mostly used as a cold-proof clothing.
  • Coated fabric: The base fabric of woven or knitted fabric is coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene, etc., which has superior waterproof function.
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